Dessalines Day in Haiti (1806)
1558 – Poczta Polska, the Polish postal service, was founded by order of King Sigismund II Augustus.
1604 – German astronomer Johannes Kepler observed an exceptionally bright star, now known as Kepler's Supernova (remnant nebula pictured), which had suddenly appeared in the constellation Ophiuchus.
1943 – The Empire of Japan completed the Burma Railway to support its forces in the Burma Campaign of World War II at the cost of approximately 100,000 lives of forced labourers.
1989 – The 6.9 Mw Loma Prieta earthquake struck California's San Francisco Bay Area, killing 63 people, injuring 3,757, and leaving at least 8,000 homeless.
2001 – Israeli Minister of Tourism Rehavam Ze'evi became the first Israeli minister to be assassinated in a terrorist attack.