1527 – The Florentines drive out the Medici for a second time and Florence re-establishes itself as a republic.
1770 – A 14-year-old Marie Antoinette marries 15-year-old Louis-Auguste who later becomes king of France.
1916 – The United Kingdom and France signed the Sykes–Picot Agreement, a secret agreement considered to have shaped the Middle East, defining the borders of Iraq and Syria.
1966 – Chinese leader Mao Zedong launched the Cultural Revolution officially as a campaign to rid China of its liberal bourgeois elements and to continue a revolutionary class struggle.
1975 – Based on the results of a referendum held about one month earlier, Sikkim abolished its monarchy and was annexed by India, becoming its 22nd state.