1794 – French Revolution: Maximilien Robespierre established the Cult of the Supreme Being as the new state religion of the French First Republic.
1824 – Ludwig van Beethoven's last complete symphony, the Symphony No. 9 in D minor, which incorporates part of Friedrich Schiller's poem "Ode to Joy" in its fourth movement, premiered at the Kärntnertortheater in Vienna.
1920 – Polish–Soviet War: During the Kiev Offensive, Polish troops, with the help of a symbolic Ukrainian force, captured Kiev, only to be driven out by the Soviet Red Army counter-offensive a month later.
1946 – Masaru Ibuka and Akio Morita founded the Tokyo Telecommunications Engineering Corporation, which later changed its name to Sony.
2007 – A team of Israeli archaeologists discovered the tomb of 1st century BC ruler of Judea Herod the Great.