1745 – Bonnie Prince Charlie raised the Jacobite standard at Glenfinnan in the Scottish Highlands to begin the Second Jacobite Rising.
1934 – Per the results of a German referendum, the posts of Chancellor and President were merged, indicating public approval for Adolf Hitler's assumption of supreme power.
1953 – The intelligence agencies of the United Kingdom and the United States orchestrated a coup d'état of Prime Minister of Iran Mohammad Mosaddegh (pictured) and restored the absolute monarchy of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi.
2002 – The single deadliest helicopter crash took place when a team of Chechen separatists brought down a Russian Mil Mi-26 with a man-portable air-defense system, resulting in 127 deaths.
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