Day of the National Flag in Ecuador (1860)
Dominion Day in New Zealand (1907)
1493 – Pope Alexander VI issued the papal bull Dudum siquidem, the last of the Bulls of Donation, marking the beginning of the Spanish colonization of the Americas.
1580 – The Golden Hind (replica pictured) sailed into Plymouth, England, as explorer Francis Drake completed his circumnavigation of the globe.
1942 – The Holocaust: Nazi official August Frank issued a memorandum setting out how the belongings of murdered Jews were to be disposed of.
1959 – Japan was struck by Typhoon Vera, the strongest and deadliest typhoon on record to make landfall on the country with US$600 million in damages and over 4,000 deaths.
2002 – MV Le Joola, a Senegalese government-owned ferry, capsized off the coast of The Gambia, resulting in the deaths of at least 1,863 people.