1278 – Trần Thánh Tông, the second emperor of Vietnam's Trần dynasty, took up the post of Retired Emperor, but continued to co-rule with his son Trần Khâm for eleven more years.
1644 – The Shunzhi Emperor, the third emperor of the Qing dynasty, was enthroned in Beijing after the collapse of the Ming dynasty as the first Qing emperor to rule over China.
1895 – German physicist Wilhelm Röntgen produced and detected electromagnetic radiation in a wavelength range known today as X-ray (first radiograph pictured).
1966 – Former Massachusetts Attorney General Edward Brooke became the first African American elected to the United States Senate since Reconstruction.
1987 – A Provisional Irish Republican Army bomb exploded during a Remembrance Sunday ceremony in Enniskillen, Northern Ireland, killing at least eleven people and injuring sixty-three others.