Inventors' Day in Austria, Germany and Switzerland
Independence Day in Cambodia (1953)
Muhammad Iqbal's Day in Pakistan
1799 – The coup of 18 Brumaire led by Emmanuel Joseph Sieyès (pictured) and Napoleon deposed the French government, replacing the Directory with the Consulate.
1822 – USS Alligator engaged three piratical schooners off the coast of Cuba in one of the West Indies anti-piracy operations of the United States.
1938 – Kristallnacht began as SA stormtroopers and civilians destroyed and ransacked Jewish homes, businesses and synagogues in Germany and Austria, resulting in at least 90 deaths and the deportation of over 25,000 others to concentration camps.
1998 – With the passing of the Human Rights Act, the European Convention on Human Rights was incorporated into United Kingdom law.
2005 – The European Space Agency launched the Venus Express mission, the first long-term observation of the Venusian atmosphere.