Republic Day in Brazil (1889)
Shichi-Go-San in Japan
565 – On his deathbed, Eastern Roman Emperor Justinian I informed his chamberlain that his nephew Justin II was to be his successor.
1864 – American Civil War: Union Army General William T. Sherman began his "March to the Sea", inflicting significant damage to property and infrastructure on his way from Atlanta to Savannah, Georgia.
1889 – Brazilian Emperor Pedro II (pictured) was overthrown in a coup led by Deodoro da Fonseca, and Brazil was proclaimed a republic.
1943 – The Holocaust: Heinrich Himmler ordered that Romanies were to be put "on the same level as Jews and placed in concentration camps".
1988 – The Soviet Buran spacecraft, a reusable vehicle built in response to NASA's Space Shuttle program, was launched, unmanned, on her only flight.