Day of the National Flag in Ecuador (1860)
1493 – Pope Alexander VI issued the papal bull Dudum siquidem, the last of the Bulls of Donation, marking the beginning of the Spanish colonization of the Americas.
1580 – The Golden Hind (replica pictured) sailed into Plymouth, England, as explorer Francis Drake completed his circumnavigation of the globe.
1917 – World War I: The Battle of Polygon Wood, part of the Battle of Passchendaele, began near Ypres, Belgium.
1942 – The Holocaust: Nazi official August Frank issued a memorandum setting out how the belongings of murdered Jews were to be disposed of.
2010 – Scottish aid worker Linda Norgrove and three Afghan colleagues were kidnapped by members of the Taliban in the Kunar Province of eastern Afghanistan.