Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu hailed the US embassy move to Jerusalem as a "glorious" day in Israel's history to a crowd of about 800 officials and dignitaries.
The ceremony took place on Monday after at least 55 Palestinian protesters were killed and more than 2,400 wounded as Israeli forces opened live fire on them in Gaza.
Palestine flags were held up by demonstrators, most of whom had to walk to get to the area because of road closures and security barricades. Posters saying "Make Jerusalem free again" and "No to Trump's illegal decision" were raised before being torn to pieces by Israeli policemen gathered on opposite sides of the barriers.
Rania Muhareb, a legal researcher at the Palestinian rights group Al Haq, told Al Jazeera the US embassy move had given Israel the "green light to continue its forcible transfer of Palestinians" from occupied East Jerusalem to keep the demographics in favour of Jewish Israelis.
Fadel Tahboub, a Jerusalem resident, said since Trump announced his decision last December to recognise Jerusalem as the capital of Israel, more than 100 Palestinians have been killed peacefully protesting in the Gaza Strip and West Bank.
"The Israelis are involved in war crimes against an isolated, unarmed population," Tahboub told Al Jazeera.
"This embassy move is merely an expression of where the US stands regarding the rights of Palestinians and the Israeli occupation."
Jerusalem is not Trump's city to give, he added.
"We are here to stay and we will remain. What is happening here is in violation of international law and must be stopped."
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