Turkish troops have begun an offensive in northern Syria, which could bring them into direct conflict with Kurdish-led forces allied to the United States.
The move was announced by Turkey's President Recep Tayyip Erdogan.
Turkey wants to create a "safe zone" cleared of Kurdish militias which will also house some of Turkey's 3.6 million Syrian refugees.
Donald Trump controversially withdrew US troops ahead of the action but says Turkey may face economic consequences.
Announcing the offensive, Mr Erdogan said on Twitter: "The Turkish Armed Forces, together with the Syrian National Army [rebel groups backed by Turkey], just launched #OperationPeaceSpring" against Kurdish militias and the Islamic State group in northern Syria.
"Our mission is to prevent the creation of a terror corridor across our southern border, and to bring peace to the area.
"We will preserve Syria's territorial integrity and liberate local communities from terrorists."
Meanwhile, The Kurdish administration in northeastern Syria called up civilians on Wednesday to defend the region against a feared Turkish assault, believed to be imminent.
"We announce three days of general mobilisation in northern and eastern Syria," it said in a statement, urging all civilians to "head to the border with Turkey... to resist during this delicate historical moment".
It also called on Kurds in Syria and abroad to protest against Ankara's planned offensive.
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