684 – Second Fitna: Umayyad partisans defeated the supporters of Ibn al-Zubayr and cemented Umayyad control of Syria.
1612 – The trial of the Pendle and Samlesbury witches, among the most famous of England's witch trials, began at the assizes in Lancaster.
1877 – American astronomer Asaph Hall discovered Phobos (pictured), the larger of Mars's two moons, six days after discovering Deimos, the smaller one.
1964 – Hildegard Trabant was killed while attempting to cross the Berlin Wall, making her the only person known to have been loyal to East Germany who was killed at the wall.
1989 – Leading Colombian presidential candidate Luis Carlos Galán was assassinated during a public demonstration in the town of Soacha, Cundinamarca.